lánkǎn gōuchuāng 闌檻鉤窗https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000208
Lankan gouchuang 闌檻鉤窗 (“balustrade bench and railing window”) is a kind of window supported by a balustrade-like series of posts crowned with a built-in bench for leaning or sitting (kanmianban 檻面版, “railing-top plate” or “railing cap”). Outside the window is an ornate railing supported by goose-neck (鵝項 e’xiang (arched)) balusters which are topped with small cloud-shaped brackets (yungong 雲栱) that hold the support rail (xunzhang 尋杖). This is called a “cloud-bracket goose-neck link-railing” (yungong e'xiang goulan 雲栱鵝項鉤闌).
The term lankan gouchang is only found in the Yingzao fashi (Li 2009, 7.3b-4b), where it is categorized under xiaomuzuo 小木作 (“small woodwork” or “fine carpentry”). The construction method of the lankan gouchang is recorded in detail, including an accompanying drawing (Li 2009 32.7b). 3
According to the description, lankan gouchuang is a window comprised of three leaves which are separated by two xinzhu 心柱 (middle jambs) and tuanzhu (槫柱 framing jamb). A pivot or hinge (tuanzhou 槫肘) is fixed on the inner jambs in order to allow the windows to be opened. Under the window, a “railing cap” (kanmianban) is installed as a bench. Tuozhu 托柱 (supporting posts) are installed under the kanmianban to support its weight. As for the railings outside the windows, “goose-neck-linked railings” (e'xiang goulan) are installed. When in use, the windows can be opened and people can sit on the bench (kanmian 檻面).
According to the Yingzao fashi, the term lankan 闌檻 includes both the goose-neck railing (e’xiang goulan) and the sill plate (kanmianban). The gouchuang 鉤窗 can be interpreted as a window filled with a square latticework (sizhifang geyan 四直方格眼). The combination of a bench with a railing (lankan) and a lattice window (gouchuang) has been documented in Northern Song dynasty paintings and literature.(Zeng and Ding 10.13a)poetry. The earliest known image of a lankan gouchuang is in Guo Zhongshu's painting “Traveling along the River in the Clearing Snow” (Xueji jiangxing tu 雪霽江行圖) from the Five Dynasties period. An opened lankan gouchuang is also depicted in Zhao Bosu's painting “Reading in an Open Hall” (Fengyan zhanjuantu 風簷展卷圖) from the Southern Song dynasty. 4
從法式的圖樣和文字來看，闌檻鉤窗主要是闌檻和鉤窗兩組構件的結合。這裏的“闌檻”應指的是“鵝項鉤闌”與檻面版的組合，這兩種構件的組合在北宋時期的畫作和文獻中已有表現。(曾和丁 10.13a)闌檻鉤窗另一組成部分“鉤窗”可以理解為有縱橫交錯花紋的窗，按照法式規定採用與四直方格眼格子門的格眼接近的做法。從使用了豎向的構件槫肘來看，鉤窗可以水平旋轉開啟。完整的闌檻鉤窗形象已知最早出現於五代郭忠恕的《雪霽江行圖》。南宋趙伯骕的《風簷展卷圖》中亦有鉤窗開啟時的闌檻鉤窗形象。 4
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- 1 GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 53.
- 2 陳. 2010. 《營造法式》辭解, 433.
- 3 李. 2009. 營造法式(故宫藏抄本), 32.7b.
- 4 曾. 武經總要, 10.13a.
Broad Match: architectural ornament
How to Cite This Entry
Bibliography:BAI Ying 白颖 et al., “ 闌檻鉤窗 lánkǎn gōuchuāng.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published May 30, 2022. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000208.
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Entry Title: 闌檻鉤窗 lánkǎn gōuchuāng
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- ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
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