Literally a main hall or hall, a tang is usually a building designed to house a special ritual or function (陳 2010, 310; Hucker 1985, 486; Guo 2002, 77; Fu 2017, 367; Kroll 2016, online edition). From records dating to the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods（770 BCE - 221 BCE), we can deduce that a tang originally referred to a building atop a podium. Additionally, the term tang was also used to refer to a high and open main room in the most important building of a larger complex. In pre-Qin sources (and after) this was the location for important ceremonial activities (Zhuge and Xue 2021, 102).2
正房；舉行儀式用的房屋 (陳 2010, 310; Hucker 1985, 486; Guo 2002, 77; Fu 2017, 367; Kroll 2016, online edition). 基於春秋戰國時期的各類文獻可知，堂本意为為坐於台基上的房屋 。“堂“又是建築群主體建築物裡高敞部分之稱，為先秦文献记载的各項禮儀主要程式進行的地方(诸葛和薛 2021, 102)。2
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- 1 陳. 2010. 《營造法式》辭解, 310.
- 2 陳. 2010. 《營造法式》辭解, 310.; HUCKER. 1985. A Dictionary of official titles in Imperial China, 486.; GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 77.; FU. 2017. Traditional Chinese Architecture: Twelve Essays, 367.; 漢語大詞典編纂処. 2011. 漢語大詞典, accessed May 27, 2022.; 诸葛. 2021. “厅堂”与“厅堂(式构架)”：一个词语的分裂史, 102.
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How to Cite This Entry
Bibliography:ZHUGE Jing 諸葛凈 et al., “ 堂 táng .” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published March 21, 2018. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000049.
About this Entry
Entry Title: 堂 táng
Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:
- Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
- ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
- ZHUGE Jing 諸葛凈, YAN Anni 嚴安妮, and CHEN Zhuo 陈卓, entry contributors, “ 堂 táng ”
- Website coordination by Yuh-Fen Benda
- Editing, proofreading, data entry and revision by Tracy Miller
- Preliminary research ZHUGE Jing 諸葛凈 YAN Anni 嚴安妮 CHEN Zhuo 陈卓
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