One of the main categories of structural elements in Chinese traditional architecture; interchangeable with liang 梁. The essential features of a cross-beam are described in Yingzao fashi (1103) and Gongcheng zuofa (1734) as such: (1) the cross-beam is placed above the pillars; (2) at least one end is supported by a pillar directly or by a bracket (gong) on top of a pillar; (3) the other end can either be inserted into the body of a pillar or placed above another beam. Within extant historic buildings it is also possible to find cross-beams in which both ends are placed above another beam. With the exception of the T-beam 丁栿, a cross beam is usually located perpendicular to purlins. In Yingzao fashi, beams are usually described with the character “fu 栿,” and a beam between pillars is named after the number of rafters it spans, such as a 6-rafter-beam, or 8-rafter-beam; however, there are exceptions, including the pinpricking connector (zhaqian 剳牽), infant beam (rufu 乳栿), eaves cross beam (yanfu 檐栿), level cross beam (pingliang 平梁), and T-beam. Modern architectural historians use this term to describe architecture dating from the Tang (618-907) to early Ming (1368-1644). In Qing dynasty texts such as the Gongcheng zuofa, a cross beam is usually named after the number of purlins it spans, such a 5-purlin-beam or 7-purlin-beam.
作為建築構件，栿是中國傳統建築中的主要長材之一種，也可稱為梁。根據北宋《營造法式》 （1103年）與清工部《工程做法》 （1734年），梁栿的基本特徵包括：（1）位於柱上。（2）梁栿的兩個支點中，至少有一端位置在柱以上；其支點直接或經由斗栱被柱支撐。（3）其另一端或可插入柱，或也可能架於另一梁栿上。在實例中，也有可能兩個支點都架在其它梁或額上。除丁栿為特例外，梁栿一般不用於面闊方向。 北宋《營造法式》術語體系裡多用“栿”字。殿堂構架的梁通常以其跨度的椽架數命名：如六椽栿、八椽栿等。不符合這一命名規則的梁則有剳牽、乳栿、檐栿、平梁、丁栿等。元以後，用栿字者較為少見。清工部《工程做法》中統一稱為“梁”。
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- 1 魏. 1974. 魏書
- 2 魏. 1974. 魏書, 2771.; 陳. 2010. 《營造法式》辭解, 275.
- 3 LIANG. 2005. Chinese architecture: a pictorial history, 10.; GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 63.
Broad Match: building frame
How to Cite This Entry
Bibliography:ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, et al., “ 栿 fú.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published May 20, 2019. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000028.
About this Entry
Entry Title: 栿 fú
Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:
- Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
- ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
- ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, and CHEN Luxi 陳麓西, entry contributors, “ 栿 fú”
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- Adding citations Melanie Lu
- Revising title statement by SUN Zheng 孫正
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