ángxíng shuǎtóu 昂形耍頭https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000001
Angxing shuatou refers to shuatou made into the shape of an "ang," which is usually an oblique or angled element. The term originated from Liang Sicheng's descriptions of buildings and has been widely adopted by scholars as the mainstream name for describing this type of shuatou (Liang 1955, 105-28). The earliest image of an angxing shuatou appears in the wall painting of the High Tang (ca. 8th century) Cave 172 at Dunhuang (Yu 2017; Xiao 2003, 232). During the Song dynasty, the angxing shuatou was already widespread in northern China, but not in the south. The term does not appear in the Yingzao fashi (Zhang Shiqing 2015). 2
Judging by its intersection with the linggong 令栱, the angxing shuatou takes one of two forms, horizontal and slanting, which were common in the Tang, Song, Liao, and Jin dynasties. The slanting form rarely appears after the Yuan dynasty (Jia Hongbo 2010, 218). Some scholars have argued that the angxing shuatou may reduce the need for a large number of bracket-set layers, which would give the dougong the appearance of a higher grade by virtue of having more projections perpendicular to the wall plane (Yu Mengzhe 2017). Potential structural functions of the angxing shuatou require further investigation. 3
昂形耍頭指形狀做成昂嘴形的耍頭，屬於曆代耍頭演變過程中的一種類型。該術語源於梁思成對建築實例的描述(梁 1955, 105–28)，並被學者廣泛採用，成為描述該種形態耍頭的主流名稱。 昂形耍頭的形象最早出現於敦煌盛唐第172窟南窟壁畫(喻 2017; 萧 2003, 232)。宋代時，昂形耍頭在北方已經廣泛流行，而江南不用，且沒有收錄於《營造法式》(张 2015)。 2
以與令栱相交為標準判斷，昂形耍頭存在平出和斜出兩種形態，在唐宋遼金各代都很常見，但斜出式在元代以後鮮少出現。(贾 2010, 218) 有學者認為昂形耍頭使斗栱在擁有較高級形象的同時，減少了實際層次，有利於構架的整體穩定(喻 2017)。然而，昂型耍頭是否有利於結構的整體穩定還有待研究，但這一構件的使用無疑使結構較爲簡單的低等級斗拱擁有了更爲高級華麗的形象。 3
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- 1 陳. 2010. 《營造法式》辭解, 241.; 漢語大詞典編纂処. 2011. 漢語大詞典, accessed May 28, 2022.
- 2 梁. 1955. 中国建筑史, 105-28.; 萧. 2003. 敦煌建筑研究, 232.; 喻. 2017. 论耍头拟昂现象与六铺作的缺失——以晋东南地区为例, accessed Feb 25, 2023.; 张. 2015. 江南厅堂井字型构架的解析与比较——以保国寺大殿为主线, accessed Feb 25, 2023.
- 3 贾. 2010. 关于宋式建筑几个大木构件问题的探讨, 218.; 喻. 2017. 论耍头拟昂现象与六铺作的缺失——以晋东南地区为例, accessed Feb 25, 2023.
Broad Match: bracketing
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How to Cite This Entry
Bibliography:ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 et al., “ 昂形耍頭 ángxíng shuǎtóu.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published March 21, 2018. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000001.
About this Entry
Entry Title: 昂形耍頭 ángxíng shuǎtóu
Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:
- Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
- ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
- ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 and HUAN Kaijie 还凯洁, entry contributors, “ 昂形耍頭 ángxíng shuǎtóu”
- Website coordination by Yuh-Fen Benda
- Preliminary research and revision by HUAN Kaijie 还凯洁
- Peer review by ATTCAT 2021
- English proofreading by Aurelia Campbell Tracy Miller
- Chinese proofreading by ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 ZUO Lala 左拉拉
- Editing, proofreading, data entry and revision by Tracy Miller
- adding various languages and revising title statement by SUN Zheng
- updating by Tracy Miller
- Data entry by LI Zhixian 李知賢
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